SEGH Articles

2012 PBC-SEGH Joint Symposium on Environmental and Public Health Sciences

01 March 2013
2012 PBC-SEGH Joint Symposium on Environmental and Public Health perspectives: a brief description of abstracts is given.

The 2012 PBC (Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health)-SEGH Joint Symposium was successfully held at the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST) in Korea on 10-12 April 2012. This jointly ventured symposium was hosted by Professor Kyoung-Woong Kim (Member of SEGH Executive Board) and brought a new audience to the SEGH. It gave our members an opportunity to exchange ideas on new interesting perspectives, such as environmental and public health sciences. The selected articles were published in a special issue of ‘Reviews on Environmental Health’ from the symposiumA Brief description is given for each abstract, follow the link to read more. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/reveh.2012.27.issue-4/issue-files/reveh.2012.27.issue-4.xml

Special issue: The 14th International Conference of the Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health

Special vulnerability of children to environmental exposures

Sly, J. Leith / Carpenter, David O.

The environment in which fetal and childhood development occurs is very important. Unfortunately, poverty is a major risk factor for both exposures and childhood and later-life disease resulting from exposures to both environmental chemicals and infectious agents.

Improving access to adequate water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia

Haryanto, Budi / Sutomo, Sumengen

The development of water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia does not indicate any significant progress in the last two decades. The prevalence of water-borne diseases tends to increase yearly, which poses a risk for a population of over a million people. Therefore, it is not realistic to achieve the Millennium Development Goals target by 2015. Redefining approaches like providing integrated programs and action in water and sanitation services must be a priority to protect human health in Indonesia.

A framework for assessing and predicting the environmental health impact of infectious diseases: a case study of leptospirosis

Lau, Colleen / Jagals, Paul

The application of an integrated environmental health impact assessment (IEHIA) methodology to assess the health impact of an infectious disease was shown to enhance the ability to quantify associations between a disease agent and its health impact by taking into account the environmental drivers of transmission, human behaviour, socioeconomic factors, and the multiple pathways through which exposure and infection could occur.

Nanoparticles in the environment: stability and toxicity

Kim, Hyun-A / Choi, Yoo Jin / Kim, Kyoung-Woong / Lee, Byung-Tae / Ranville, James F.

This review presents a brief overview of the fate, behavior, and ecotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment. The fate and transport of NPs, which can be affected by various environmental conditions like light, pH, ionic strength, and type and concentration of cations, are important for the examination of the life cycle of NPs.

Nature’s cure for cleanup of contaminated environment – a review of bioremediation strategies

Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara / Prasad, Rajendra

Bioremediation technologies resting upon the vast potential of biodiversity for the monitoring and abatement of environmental pollution have been briefly reviewed.

Arsenic and human health: epidemiologic progress and public health implications

Argos, Maria / Ahsan, Habibul / Graziano, Joseph H.

Herein, we emphasize the role of recent genetic and molecular epidemiologic investigations of arsenic toxicity. Additionally, we discuss considerations for the public health impacts of arsenic exposure through drinking water with respect to primary and secondary prevention efforts.

Direct potable reuse of reclaimed wastewater: it is time for a rational discussion

Arnold, Robert G. / Sáez, Avelino E. / Snyder, Shane / Maeng, Sung Kyu / Lee, Changha / Woods, Gwendolyn J. / Li, Xiangdong / Choi, Heechul

Engineered solutions to relieve water stress are frequently based on the use of water of impaired initial quality. Chief among these impaired waters is reclaimed wastewater. For the most part, however, the breadth of both acceptable uses and use-dependent degree of treatment for reclaimed wastewater remain to be established.

Persistent toxic substances: sources, fates and effects

Wong, Ming H. / Armour, Margaret-Ann / Naidu, Ravi / Man, Ming

This article is an attempt to review the current status of Persistently Toxic Substances (PTS) in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed.

 

Dr Michael Watts, SEGH Webmaster

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  • Outdoor air particle-bound trace metals in four selected communities in Ibadan, Nigeria 2014-08-01

    Abstract

    Trace metal concentrations were determined in particulate matter (PM10) in ambient air of four purposively selected residential areas in Ibadan, Nigeria namely Bodija market (BM), Ojo Park (OP), Oluyole Estate (OE) and University of Ibadan (UI). PM10 was determined in the morning (7–10 a.m.) and afternoon (2–5 p.m.) for 12 weeks in the dry season months of January–March using a volumetric sampler following standard procedures and levels compared with WHO guideline limits. Glass-fibre filter papers exposed to the particulate matter were digested using appropriate acid mixtures, and the digest analysed for trace metals including Ni, Cr, Mn, Zn, and Pb using ICPMS method and levels compared with WHO limits. Data was analysed using ANOVA and Pearson correlation test at 5 % level of significance. The highest mean PM10 concentrations 502.3 ± 39.9 μg/m3 were recorded in the afternoon period at BM, while the lowest concentration 220.6 ± 69.9 μg/m3 was observed in the morning hours at UI. There was a significant difference between the PM10 levels across the various locations (p < 0.05), and all the levels were higher than WHO limit of 50 μg/m3. The highest levels of Ni, Zn and Pb were recorded at BM, which also had the highest PM10 burden. The trend in Pb levels across the locations was BM > UI > OP > OE with the highest level 5.70 μg/m3 in BM nearly fourfolds WHO limits of 1.5 μg/m3. There was a significant correlation between PM10 and Ni (p < 0.05).Urban communities with increased human activities especially motor traffic recorded both higher levels of PM10 and toxic trace metals. There is need to carry out source apportionment to establish the origin of these trace metals in future studies.

  • PAHs in organic film on glass window surfaces from central Shanghai, China: distribution, sources and risk assessment 2014-08-01

    Abstract

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were analysed in the organic film on the glass surfaces of different functional areas in central Shanghai. Concentration levels of total PAHs in the organic film ranged from 1,348.5 to 4,007.9 ng m−2. The concentration of PAHs was lowest in parks and green spaces (1,348.5 ng m−2) and highest in traffic zones (4,007.9 ng m−2). A concentration gradient of total PAHs was observed as follows: traffic zones > commercial areas > cultural and educational areas > parks and green spaces. The distribution of PAHs was characterised by 3–4 ring PAHs in the study areas. The most abundant PAHs were phenanthrene (20.5 %), fluorene (16.7 %), pyrene (12.4 %) and chrysene (Chry) (11.2 %). The mass of the bulk film was composed of organic and inorganic compounds and ranged from 246 to 1,288 mg m−2. The bulk film thickness varied from 144 to 757 nm in the different functional areas. The ratios of An/178 and Fl/202 and principal component analysis suggested that PAHs came mainly from the mixed sources of fossil fuel, coal and incomplete combustion of biomass. Benzo[a]anthracene (BaA)/Chry is not suitable for use as a tracer for the transmission process of PAHs because of the rapid depletion of BaA in the organic film by photooxidation during daylight hours. The concentration of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) varied from 21 to 701 ng g−1, and the major carcinogenic contributors of the 16 PAHs were BaP, DahA, B[b/k]F and InP, accounting for 83 % of BaPeq.

  • Exposure assessment of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb) by the intake of local foods from Zhejiang, China 2014-08-01

    Abstract

    Considering the environmental pollution, food safety is of great concern to the consumers. The present study was conducted to assess the health risk of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) through the dietary intake in Zhejiang, China. Eight hundred and sixty two food samples including aquatic products, meat, vegetables, milk and dairy products, and cereal grains were analyzed. Only 2.44 % (Cd), 1.39 % (Hg), and 1.51 % (Pb) of the samples exceeded the maximum allowable concentration set by Chinese Ministry of Health. The average dietary intakes of Cd, Hg, and Pb were estimated to be 0.26, 0.14, and 0.55 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. Compared with the reference doses, the mean exposure of Cd, Hg, and Pb was all less than the tolerable intake value. Only at the 95th percentile level, Cd and Hg exposure exceeded the values of tolerable intakes by 40 and 277 %, respectively. It indicates that there is low health risk to the dietary exposure of Cd, Hg, and Pb for general people in Zhejiang province, China.