SEGH Articles

2012 PBC-SEGH Joint Symposium on Environmental and Public Health Sciences

01 March 2013
2012 PBC-SEGH Joint Symposium on Environmental and Public Health perspectives: a brief description of abstracts is given.

The 2012 PBC (Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health)-SEGH Joint Symposium was successfully held at the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST) in Korea on 10-12 April 2012. This jointly ventured symposium was hosted by Professor Kyoung-Woong Kim (Member of SEGH Executive Board) and brought a new audience to the SEGH. It gave our members an opportunity to exchange ideas on new interesting perspectives, such as environmental and public health sciences. The selected articles were published in a special issue of ‘Reviews on Environmental Health’ from the symposiumA Brief description is given for each abstract, follow the link to read more. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/reveh.2012.27.issue-4/issue-files/reveh.2012.27.issue-4.xml

Special issue: The 14th International Conference of the Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health

Special vulnerability of children to environmental exposures

Sly, J. Leith / Carpenter, David O.

The environment in which fetal and childhood development occurs is very important. Unfortunately, poverty is a major risk factor for both exposures and childhood and later-life disease resulting from exposures to both environmental chemicals and infectious agents.

Improving access to adequate water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia

Haryanto, Budi / Sutomo, Sumengen

The development of water and basic sanitation services in Indonesia does not indicate any significant progress in the last two decades. The prevalence of water-borne diseases tends to increase yearly, which poses a risk for a population of over a million people. Therefore, it is not realistic to achieve the Millennium Development Goals target by 2015. Redefining approaches like providing integrated programs and action in water and sanitation services must be a priority to protect human health in Indonesia.

A framework for assessing and predicting the environmental health impact of infectious diseases: a case study of leptospirosis

Lau, Colleen / Jagals, Paul

The application of an integrated environmental health impact assessment (IEHIA) methodology to assess the health impact of an infectious disease was shown to enhance the ability to quantify associations between a disease agent and its health impact by taking into account the environmental drivers of transmission, human behaviour, socioeconomic factors, and the multiple pathways through which exposure and infection could occur.

Nanoparticles in the environment: stability and toxicity

Kim, Hyun-A / Choi, Yoo Jin / Kim, Kyoung-Woong / Lee, Byung-Tae / Ranville, James F.

This review presents a brief overview of the fate, behavior, and ecotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment. The fate and transport of NPs, which can be affected by various environmental conditions like light, pH, ionic strength, and type and concentration of cations, are important for the examination of the life cycle of NPs.

Nature’s cure for cleanup of contaminated environment – a review of bioremediation strategies

Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara / Prasad, Rajendra

Bioremediation technologies resting upon the vast potential of biodiversity for the monitoring and abatement of environmental pollution have been briefly reviewed.

Arsenic and human health: epidemiologic progress and public health implications

Argos, Maria / Ahsan, Habibul / Graziano, Joseph H.

Herein, we emphasize the role of recent genetic and molecular epidemiologic investigations of arsenic toxicity. Additionally, we discuss considerations for the public health impacts of arsenic exposure through drinking water with respect to primary and secondary prevention efforts.

Direct potable reuse of reclaimed wastewater: it is time for a rational discussion

Arnold, Robert G. / Sáez, Avelino E. / Snyder, Shane / Maeng, Sung Kyu / Lee, Changha / Woods, Gwendolyn J. / Li, Xiangdong / Choi, Heechul

Engineered solutions to relieve water stress are frequently based on the use of water of impaired initial quality. Chief among these impaired waters is reclaimed wastewater. For the most part, however, the breadth of both acceptable uses and use-dependent degree of treatment for reclaimed wastewater remain to be established.

Persistent toxic substances: sources, fates and effects

Wong, Ming H. / Armour, Margaret-Ann / Naidu, Ravi / Man, Ming

This article is an attempt to review the current status of Persistently Toxic Substances (PTS) in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed.

 

Dr Michael Watts, SEGH Webmaster

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Latest on-line papers from the SEGH journal: Environmental Geochemistry and Health

  • Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology and ground-water ionicity: study based on Sri Lanka 2014-08-14

    Abstract

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in ‘nonpoint source’ fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of ‘tank’-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism.

  • Seasonal variation and source apportionment of organic tracers in PM10 in Chengdu, China 2014-08-14

    Abstract

    Organic compound tracers including n-alkanes, triterpane, sterane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dicarboxylic acids of airborne particulate matter (PM10) were characterized for samples collected at five sites from July 2010 to March 2011 using GC/MS. Spatial and temporal variations of these organic tracers in PM10 were studied, and their sources were then identified respectively. Average daily concentrations of PM10 varied in different seasons with the trend of PM10 in winter (0.133 mg/m3) > autumn (0.120 mg/m3) > spring (0.103 mg/m3) > summer (0.098 mg/m3). Daily concentrations of n-alkanes (C11–C36) ranged from 12.11 to 163.58 ng/m3 with a mean of 61.99 ng/m3. The C max and CPI index of n-alkanes indicated that vehicle emissions were the major source in winter, while the contributions of high plant wax emissions became significant in other seasons. It was discovered that the main sources of triterpenoid and steranes were gasoline and diesel engine emissions. Concentrations of ∑15PAHs in PM10 also varied (12.25–58.56 ng/m3) in different seasons, and chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(ghi) perylene and fluoranthene were the dominant components. In the four seasons, the concentration of ∑15PAHs was relatively higher at the northern site because of traffic congestion. The main source of airborne PAHs was traffic emissions and coal combustion. Average daily concentrations of dicarboxylic acids (C4–C10) in PM10 ranged from 12.11 to 163.58 ng/m3, of which azeleic acid was the major compound (0.49–52.04 ng/m3, average 14.93 ng/m3), followed by succinic acid (0.56–19.08 ng/m3, average 6.84 ng/m3). The ratio of C6/C9 showed that the major source in winter was biological, while the contributions of emissions from anthropogenic activities were much higher in summer.

  • Occurrence of estrogens in water, sediment and biota and their ecological risk in Northern Taihu Lake in China 2014-08-13

    Abstract

    Occurrence of five estrogens, including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and bisphenol A (BPA) in water, sediment and biota in Northern Taihu Lake, were investigated and their ecological risk was evaluated. Most of the target estrogens were widely distributed in the eight studied sampling sites, and their levels showed a regional trend of Gong Bay > Meiliang Bay > Zhushan Bay. The average concentrations of E1, E2, E3, EE2 and BPA ranged from 3.86 to 64.4 ng l−1, 44.3 to 64.1 μg kg−1 dry weight and 58.6 to 115 μg kg−1 dry weight in water, sediments and biota, respectively. In most cases, the average concentrations of BPA and E2 were higher than those of other estrogens. E1, E3 and EE2 were found to be accumulated in river snails with bioaccumulation factor values as high as 14,204, 35,327 and 20,127 l kg−1, respectively. E3 was also considered to be accumulated in clams. The evaluation of environmental risk showed that the occurrence of E2 and EE2 in lakes might pose a high risk to aquatic organisms. These findings provide important information for estrogen control and management in the studied area.